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Head Dress

Photographs of Three Calf (Wipes his Eyes) in his buckskin suit and headdress, from the Magee Collection

Subject: Head Dress, Clothing and dress, Kainai, Family History, Portrait, Magee, Thomas Benjamin, 1862-1930, Magee, Henry Lincoln, 1896-1966, Magee, Donald Lee 1938-, Photographs, Leadership, Beadwork, Warriors, Moccasins, Leggings, Three Calf, Wipes His Eyes

Transcript: Father: Wolf Plume Mother: Yellow Iron Woman Wife: Taking Gun, First and second husbands passed no children with either. Children: Susan, Thomas, Maggie, Joseph and Mollie Three Calf lived with his uncle Running Rabbit (Blood) for a time after his father passed, he did eventually move home to the south. He was one of the last to have the rights to the Bear Knife. After Three Calf had passed his knife was sold to a collector who in turn sold it to the Buffalo Bill Museum in Cody, Wyoming. There is a photo of him with the knife in the Blackfoot Papers p.1335. Three Calf was a well known warrior and went on many raids as a young man. He moved a lot between the Aamskaapi'piikunii and the Kainai through out his life. Three Calf was a very well respected and well known leader. Card information: Three Calf a.k.a. Wipes His Eyes 1. A profile headshot of a Blackfeet man wearing a feathered headdress and beaded clothes. Henry L. Magee, 1896-1966 MGNGEN0028 Three Calf � 2. A Blackfeet man wearing a feathered headress and beaded clothes. Note: Photograph of a photograph. Henry L. Magee, 1896-1966 MGNGEN0029 Three Calf 3. A profile headshot of a Blackfeet man wearing a feathered headress and beaded clothes. Henry L. Magee, 1896-1966 MGNGEN0030 Three Calf � 4. A Blackfeet man, wearing a feathered headdress and beaded clothes, standing in a dirt field. Henry L. Magee, 1896-1966 MGNGEN0031 Three Calf � 5. A Blackfeet man, wearing a feathered headdress and beaded clothes, standing in a dirt field. Henry L. Magee, 1896-1966 MGNGEN0032 This photograph is part of the Magee Family Collection. The collection was donated to the Blackfoot Digital Library by Don Magee the son of Thomas Magee. The originals are now in the University of Alberta's archives. Research on the photographs has been done by Adrienne Heavy Head using various published resources about the Blackfoot people and interviews.


AR-7-4 Blackfoot Radio Pete Weasel Moccasin and Pat Weasel Head talks about dances (grass dance and sundance) Rosie Many Grey Horses gave a report on the Land Policy Research Commission

Subject: Bears, Head Dress, Parental Responsibility, Morality, Art, Radio broadcasting, Dance, Blackfoot radio, Weasel Moccasin, Pete, Weasel Head, Pat, Many Grey Horses, Rosie

Transcript: Track 1 (00-30) talking Announcer I wanted to ask you when the dance first started. Tell the story about it. Pete Weasel Moccasin How I understand it and was told to me. Sitting Bull his father Siitoowasii he went to the grass dance he got there. This is what I heard it is still here. Bears Coming Over his drum he went there with his drum. That was when grass dance men were the ones who danced, but no women danced at that time. Today it is different of the dances. Announcer The women headdress Pete Weasel Moccasin It is the same went to a grass dance that was when women headdress started, also the whip and bells they belonged to the women. Someone would just say lets have a dance and they would all gather for the dance. I was young at that time and attended at the dance no child was able to run on the dance circle. These things were important to the dance, which were the Knifes, whips, belts and the incense thong (something to take ashes from stove or fire) and the drum. We would honor these things first before the dance would start. When the women are going to dance they would put on the women headdress first then they would dance. The children would go to the center when they gave out a lunch that was what they enjoyed. Where they held the dance it was in a big house. Eagle Shirt enjoyed dances at Little Bird home in the woods. He was able to recognize the house from his horse and that were the dances were held. We used to say where the Crow grass dance went to cut for the dance. Their might have been three of them Otter did not do the grass dance; also Tall Man did not do the grass dance. They were young at that time and the year was 1908. Two Sun man and Two Suns went to cut they were young Crow dancers. They started making it others brought things there and some had brought poles that they had cut and were used for the top, also where the drums were placed. Some people took their teepee canvas down and used it for the center and used wood to for it. My father and I brought wood there from our home. Then the dance started everyone had camped around where the dance was going to be held. There was no floor there and a fire was started and the ground was hard, but before the dance started the ground had softened up. The dancers danced around. Eagle Shirt had taken the grass dance from the Crows then the grass dances were better and that was when the Owl Dance started it was from Eagle Shirt. Announcer After the dance was over tell us how the Societies started. Pete Weasel Moccasin No Societies were formed at that time all the Crow grass dancers were eager for the dance. They had meetings Young Horse, Tall Hats, Little Ears and Rides Around. They were named that because they won the riding. The Cree grass dancers people from the east side were all friends and they were called the Red Belts and held their own meetings. That was when we held our own meetings the Black Horse Society because we were all friends. That was when dances were held from different societies. Today children run on the dance floor and people who are drunken dance to and the English language is spoken and that is how old stories are told. People who drink are not living well and think they are having fun when they drink alcohol. It is true I used to drink, but never went to a dance drunk I always went sober and still had a good time. I don�t go to dances now because I�m scared of people who are drunk and they might bother me. Announcer Yes they might beat you up, but in the past you drank now you are running away from people who are drunk. Pete Weasel Moccasin My children I am just joking, but in the past it was different our way of living from how people live today. The dances today children chase each other around on the dance floor. In the past if a child was to run onto the dance floor an old person would tell him/her and would listen and not argue. Today if I was to do the same he/she would tell me the hell with you, you have no right talking to me. That is true nobody can discipline anyone. It would be better if people listened to old people. That was why our people lived better back then when an old person would talk to the younger people. Even if the person who is giving the lecture might have did crazy things when they were younger. They would use those stories so the one who he/she is lecturing will not do the same mistakes. Now you can�t even lecture anyone, because they talk back. Announcer That is true now they say lets have an elder talk at our meeting for it to be good. Pete Weasel Moccasin It is too late for us old people to talk. Announcer You are still talking in English. Pat Weasel Head You are right he�s a white man look at his hands their white. Pete Weasel Moccasin We are all sitting here and I�m telling a story and we are all joking around with each other. If you want me to tell some funny stories I could, but some would not like the story. Announcer Talk about the whip. Pete Weasel Moccasin I will tell you about how I was told the story. Announcer Talk about before the dance started and when it is over. Pete Weasel Moccasin When the dance was over it was also important. How I know it towards the end I used to drum. Bears Hears at that time would have a dance. They would dance for the whip first then the big drum finally the knife and the two belts. One belonged to Eagle Shirt and Bird looks and the one who uses the incense stick then they would sing. When they made a complete circle then someone would blow on the whistle then all the grass dancers would get up and dance in every direction. That was how it went and the societies were formed. Announcer The women headdress how I know it a Cree man and his wife owned one. That was what I saw. Pete Weasel Moccasin The women would take a women�s headdress you know that us we know, because of how we were raised. Now they don�t see this they are crazy the younger generation. When the story is over the women would dance that was how it went the dances. The Dog eater people would go to them for prayer requests because they were powerful. The last time I saw them was on the west way. The Black horse had a dance and said that the dog eaters would help. Announcer I saw it to but did not fully understand Owl (night announcer) was a dog eater. Pete Weasel Moccasin He was from the east-side. Announcer They gave him Many Rides head/hair bag getting upset that was who he was talking to. That was when he gave it to Owl that was what I saw. Pete Weasel Moccasin I saw it to on the east-side the Dog eaters they were going eastward for wood and tied their wood up. That was when the white way slowly started coming about. When they came upon another dog and said you are not one and threw it away they killed two mean dogs that were tied up. Owl Jim Many Feathers was a horn member gave it to them. Midnight his younger brother said take this and eat it, but because they were horn members and weren�t supposed to eat it, but they ate it anyway. That was the last time I saw that. There would be four people who would kill a dog. They would sing for the medicine, whip, knife and the important things. They would select four elders before they killed the dog and the four elders would sit and would be the only ones who ate the dog. Track 2 (5:20-5:48) Singing Pete Weasel Moccasin They would sing the song four times each time a little faster. Today we have Chief & Council. It tastes good give me some more alcohol. Announcer Don�t drink anymore it�s almost all gone. Pete Weasel Moccasin Yes these are the things I know there is no more. It is lonely as you get older people don�t care for us. In the past whenever we meet up with the old people we would give our last few dollars to them. Pat was stingy with his money. When they ask for cigarettes and we give them some right away they start to pray for us. A quarter in the past was a lot of money back then and you would be able to buy a lot of food with it. Me I never gave them a dollar just a quarter or dime. Today there is a lot from the younger generation in town asking us old people to help them out with money so they�ll have enough to buy alcohol. If we don�t help them they get mad. That is how the young people live today. Pat Weasel Head I didn�t find my younger relation smart in some ways he is crazy. He knows what it is over at Brocket well I won�t tell the story. It is hard he won�t do the right thing. Pete Weasel Moccasin Boy your pipe did you get it. There is a story about when we take food out of a house. In the past a boy was caught and felt bad they lived in a mud house. Pat Weasel Head My grandson was telling me about a horse and here he is scared of them. He said also in the past everyone was skinny. Pete Weasel Moccasin Why I am telling you this in the past it was good of how we lived our old people were always happy then us younger ones were happy to. On the other hand I am going to tell you about why it is our fault now. If only we continued to be happy then our children would also be happy if we continued to follow those ways. Pat was also crazy at times telling his children not to drink and he would drink if offered some. So give me some more alcohol. Pat Weasel Head It is really bad now those two are holy friends. Pete Weasel Moccasin It is good of the ones who understand our language, but now I am speaking English because my grandchildren do not speak Blackfoot. At times when I go into a room they are speaking English and I try to understand what they are saying this is our way of life now. Pat Weasel Head My children asked the question about our old ways if we could go back to our way of living like the past. I told them it is hard my children to live like that again. All the people their doors used to be where the sun comes up in the morning and at night they had a place where they smudge and did not sit in front of the smudge and would sit on the ground/floor. Everyday they would smudge but would not smoke their pipe. The dogs would not go into homes even if the weather is really cold. Even at night they would smudge, but now it is not like that anymore in our homes people do not get wood from the outside to burn the piece of wood on the stove. They are scared to do this, but in the past they would have a fire in the center of the teepee and take an ash from the fire to smudge with and did not go out with a lit cigarette. If someone was smoking they would not let anyone walk in front of that person. That is part of the reason why people lived to be a hundred years old in the past. The three of us lived in that era in the winter when I was sleeping I would be told to get up then at times I would be rolled into the snow and they would tell me it is to toughen up your body. I never got sick my children I am happy that you call me friend I am 69 years old now soon I will be 70 years old. Pete Weasel Moccasin We no longer visit one another or invite anyone for a visit. Before from morning and into the evening we used to visit and tell stories and smoke. Today if you visit someone and the dishes are clean they don�t feed you. Pat Weasel Head Before if you visit anyone we did not have to notify them first that we are going to visit them just go there. Pete Weasel Moccasin Before when we show up right away they invite them in right away to sit down and would feed them. That was our way in the past. Pat Weasel Head Now people knock on doors, before you did not knock when you got to the door you would make a coughing sound right away right away you would be invited in. But on the other hand you won�t know them down east and from the north and four persons from the south. Pete Weasel Moccasin In the past stories were always told, but did not talk about Chief & Council saying this is how much money they stole or saved up. These things they never spoke about. Pat Weasel Head They won�t say that they gathered information about what they have a home or seeing things being brought to his place that he is not living there now. That is how lazy people are today they use the washroom in a beautiful home now. Pete Weasel Moccasin We never got sick when we used to go outside to use the washroom. I went on a holy hunt and was given a song. Track 4 (2:49-3:14) Singing I am not the only one it was nothing and here people don�t find holy today and here we are holy. Someone came to my home and told me your brother is really sick to go there. We had a hard time to find a way there. On my vehicle the tire had rolled off. My brother had wires/tubes on his head when we got there he did get better. I wasn�t scared to travel at night. Announcer Did he get cleansed? Pete Weasel Moccasin Yes are you thinking that I am not good. That was when I doctored him. It is different today of how we lived and are too much into the western way of life. Just because our people get an education they say we are living the western way of life. They no longer care about our native ways. When Indians live among the white people they are still recognized as Indian people, but they only speak the English language. In the past if a Blackfoot person lived among the Cree�s and spoke the Cree language he/she would still be recognized as a Blackfoot Indian from the Cree. Moon Women and Many Shots lived among the Cree�s and spoke the Cree language, but were still Blackfoot Indians. Announcer You are right of what you are talking about it was not long ago I went to visit someone towards evening. When I knocked on the door his wife answered the door and said what I wanted, but had me wait outside. I told her that I came to visit her husband. She spoke in English and told me just to wait I will tell him closing the door. So I waited outside beside the door and a boy came back and opened the door. I was about to go into the house the boy stopped me from entering the house and said we are about to eat you can�t come in speaking in English. Pete Weasel Moccasin That�s what I was talking about the change. It was what we spoke about earlier when someone would go visit right away they would be invited in and told we were just about to eat sit down and they would join in on the meal. That was our way of life before I lived in that era to in the past people enjoyed soup. Whenever we were in the woods and saw a teepee/tent we would go in and ask if they could feed us bread I was not shy to ask. Pat Weasel Head You are right it happened that way in our past it is not like that anymore. Today we do not know which direction we are to follow. Another way to say it if we are going to tell old stories us old people are pushed aside. If we try to discipline and they do not listen they get to a point in their life of hardship. A long time ago I heard about Raining Chief getting into a disagreement with the Black Robes (Priests) of the way they pray. They targeted Camping around to sign an agreement and he was put in charge. He told his children to wait here when they were told to come out of hiding. There were six of them one of them was shot at he fell down. The other five went running away and were shot at to. Raining Chief said the interpreter was wrong and ripped one of the papers to pieces blowing it from his hand. Then he shot at the one who argued with him had told him. Why did you pray you shouldn�t have prayed yet we were going to beat you? Come over here we are going to claim some things, but he continued to walk away. He was looking around noticing where faces were going to be painted he told them not to touch anything just to leave things were they were. After a prayer was said they burnt paper and the black ash blew away. Then he shot the five people. Pete Weasel Moccasin Is that what the priests did? Pat Weasel Head Yes the Indians did not read back then so the Indians would not have known what was written. Pete Weasel Moccasin Let�s put our camp up and for them not to do anymore work and for the women to pound the posts and the medicine men not to prepare any herbal drinks. Rest now saying we are going to pray now. The priest was still alive and I saw him. Announcer Let�s pray now. Pat Weasel Head That was the only thing I heard about arguing over prayer. If only the Cree had listened and gone out their horses were there. Pete Weasel Moccasin Their horses were at the river drinking water it was near the camp. At our Sundance only been two who I approved of they were eager to move to the Sundance grounds. The children make to much noise and vehicles driving around. We hear this from the center teepee and here we are praying for everyone. We holy elders at times would discipline the people telling them to keep the noise down right away they would listen, but now we see the headlight from vehicles turning into the Sundance, also hearing people swear. These things have really changed it will never be the same of the past way of life. In ten to twenty years everything will really change and think it�s only for show, also we would have to pay to watch our way of life. We would be saying this show is here, but it really costs a lot that would be our changes. Pat Weasel Head The way we lived was beautiful we used to play rodeo and we would have two matchsticks in our pocket that was what we used for payment. Pete Weasel Moccasin Yes we did a lot of things for fun we used to play with a ball kicking it around, also we used a stick and tied a wolfs tail tied to the end of the stick waving it around. Pat Weasel Head The people challenged on another the people from the east-side and north played one another we would just watch them. Track 6 (00-1:26) Prayer Pete Weasel Moccasin Another thing I remember from my grandfather the willow was used back then the deer hoofs the women used. I am going to make a deer hoof purse. Pat Weasel Head I wonder how they made a pipe back then the rock was hard and it was shaped really well, also a hole had to be made in order to smoke the pipe. Pete Weasel Moccasin This is how it was made the stem you would peel first then paint. The hard part was the rock pipe it was just like building a home. Those were the good times now nobody cuts the willow to make stems. The best time to cut the willow for the stems is in July. Over there is Medicine Hat Mink argued with me about it and said that wasn�t the song, but I heard it before. Where the rivers join at Medicine Hat that was where a Woman Lodge was held a Blood woman and a Glechigan woman. The women had to be careful a song had to be sung before the center pole was cut. They had watched when they started painting faces after they broke camp and started picking herbs that night they heard that Wolf Shoe from Glechigan had been beat. The man said lets camp near the women�s lodge and was told come here go this way. At the women lodge there was a mean man sitting there and here they camped by him. He told the woman to go get wood, but was unsuccessful in finding wood. Than she sat on a pole she looked around and noticed the people still had paint on their faces. She was still sitting on the pole and she started to sing. Track 6 (7:10-7:23) Singing Then he heard her and came running out and said there is a lot of children around. She said it is okay getting up from the pole. That is all I have to talk about. Track 7 (00-1:08) announcements and singing Peter Big Head This is the report on the Blood land policy research commission. We have Rosie Many Grey Horses the Chairperson and also a member of the band council for the Blood Tribe and she is a chairperson for the Blood land policy research commission to give her report. Rosie Many Grey Horses This is our progress report on the land policy research commission as of November. Under the direction of council the commission commenced a process for establishing land use policy on the reserve in June of 1985. At that time six area representatives were employed to work directly with all the people in three separate areas of the reserve. One of the main responsibilities is to ensure good communications are established in continued during the period required to complete the policy. To date they established contact with 499 individuals to explain council�s proposal and get their reaction to it. They are to continue their efforts to ensure all or as many people as possible are involved. The three areas involved I think we explained before was area one is south boundary to highway 505, area two covered highway 505 to 509, area three highway 509 to north end boundary. Area one representatives are Winston Bird a non landholder and Francis Scout a landholder. Area two representatives Johnny Day Rider a non landholder, Lyman Tail Feathers a landholder, but at present this position is vacant and has been posted out for competition. Area three representatives are Sheldon Day Chief a non landholder and Mike Bruised Head a landholder. At the conclusion of each interview the individual was asked to respond to these two questions. #1 Do you think a land use policy is required on the Blood reserve. #2 Should the land commission be involved in the process. The results are as follows. In area one question #1 we had 148 yeses, 19 no�s, 3 undecided. In area one for question #2 167 yeses, 3 for no and none for undecided. In area two question #1 we had 143 yeses, 17 no�s and none undecided. Question #2 148 yeses, 12 no�s. In area three question #1. 138 yeses, 17 no�s and 14 undecided. Question #2 138 yeses, 17 no�s and 14 undecided. The combined results for question #1 is 429 yeses, 53 no�s and 17 undecided. Question #2 453 yeses, 32 no�s and 14 undecided final results of the summary will be released when the process has been finalized. Some of the more frequent questions asked which require further clarification are. Is the land policy commission a part of the land issues task force. Is the commission writing a land use policy? Are the people doing the interviews radicals? The Blood land policy research commission normally referred to as the land commission was established in the fall of 1984 by the previous council and since then approved by the current one. Its two main functions are to establish a good land data base by collecting and recording all matters relating to past transactions, policies, etc including the material collected by the land issues task force. And secondly to assist council and the people in establishing a land use policy the commission is funded by the Department of Indian Affairs by contribution arrangement it anticipated term of existence is 4 years, as this is perceived time for establishing a land use policy on the Blood reserve. The commission is directed by its own committee who in turn report to the land committee the task force however is a different organization which takes its direction from the constitution committee. The commission�s role in establishing a policy is to provide a communication network between the people and council. To pass recommendations and ideas both ways and when required to give relevant information to assist in everyone�s deliberations to minimize the potential for heated debates which occurred in open meetings in the past. The commission representatives decided that direct contact with the families initially would be more productive. By following this procedure a great deal of information both past and present could be passed onto them directly always bearing in mind that everyone�s confidentially must be safeguarded to protect those concerned. It is anticipated that over a period of time everyone would become sufficiently knowledgeable in all problems related to land to be able to discuss all issues. At this time and at the request of the people of the community meetings with council representatives present could be arranged to exchange ideas and recommendations, collection recordings and circulation of all phases of operations would be the responsibly of the commission. A band meeting could also be considered as a final step in the connolating negotiation that is hired in the suggested policy. Which then would have to be placed before the people in a form of a referendum? For acceptance in the event the people reject the policy at the poll. Modification to objectionable areas would have been brought to the members again following the same process. All the people employed by the commission with the acceptations of the intern coordinator or selected through the competitive ability to meet the requirements of the job. In addition the employees are required to take an oath of secret to protect everyone�s confidentially to assist in the process it would be greatly appreciated if all people would cooperate in their exchange in their information with council through their area representatives� thank you Track 8 (2:20-7:34) singing and announcements


Photo of Emma Last Star from the Magee collection

Subject: Head Dress, Clothing and dress, Headgear